Foundations—You can build a safe earthfill dam on almost any foundation if you thoroughly investigate the foundation and adapt the design and construction to the conditions. Some foundation conditions require expensive construction measures that cannot be justified for small ponds.
The most satisfactory foundation consists of soil underlain at a shallow depth by a thick layer of relatively impervious consolidated clay or sandy clay. If a suitable layer is at or near the surface, no special measures are needed except removing the topsoil and scarifying or disking to provide a bond with the material in the dam.
If the foundation is sand or a sand-gravel mixture and there is no impervious clay layer at a depth that can be reached economically with available excavating equipment, an engineer should design the dam. Although such foundations may be stable, corrective measures are needed to prevent excessive seepage and possible failure. A foundation, consisting of or underlain by a highly plastic clay or unconsolidated material requires careful investigation and design to obtain stability. If the foundation consists of such materials, consult an engineer.
Water impounded on a bedrock foundation seldom gives cause for concern unless the rock contains seams, fissures, or crevices through which water may escape at an excessive rate. Where rock is in the foundation, investigate the nature of the rock carefully.
Cutoffs—If the dam’s foundation is overlain by alluvial deposits of pervious sands and gravels at or near the surface and rock or clay at a greater depth, seepage in the pervious stratum must be reduced to prevent possible failure of the dam by piping. To prevent excessive seepage, you need a cutoff to join the impervious stratum in the foundation with the base of the dam.
Fig. 27. A core trench is cut on the centerline of a dam
The most common kind of cutoff is made of compacted clayey material. A trench is excavated along the centerline of the dam deep enough to extend well into the impervious layer (fig. 27). This trench extends into and up the abutments of the dam as far as there is any pervious material that might allow seepage. The bottom of the trench should be no less than 8 feet wide (or the bulldozer blade width, whichever is greater), and the sides no steeper than 1.5:1. Fill the trench with successive thin layers (9-inch maximum) of clay or sandy clay material. Compact each layer thoroughly at near-optimum moisture conditions before placing the next layer. The moisture content is adequate for compaction when the material can be formed into a firm ball that sticks together and remains intact when the hand is vibrated violently and no free water appears.
Top width and alignment—For dams less than 10 feet high, a conservative minimum top width is 6 feet. As the height of the dam increases, increase the top width. The recommended minimum top width for earth embankments of various heights is:
If the top of the embankment is to be used for a roadway, provide for a shoulder on each side of the roadway to prevent raveling. The top width should be at least 16 feet. In some situations a curved dam alignment is more desirable than a straight alignment. Curvature can be used to retain existing landscape elements, reduce the apparent size of the dam, blend the dam into surrounding natural landforms, and provide a natural-appearing shoreline.
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