Kalikasan Philippines

Manayan Farm, Malalam, Ilagan

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Hilltop, Santo Tomas, Naguilian

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Farm 03 Cadu, Ilagan

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Water Use and Management RD

Building the excavated pond

 A well planned and built pond
A well planned and built pond blends with the terrain and characteristic features of the land

Building the pond. The kind of excavating equipment used depends on the climatic and physical conditions at the site and on what equipment is available.

In low-rainfall areas where water is unlikely to accumulate in the excavation, you can use almost any kind of available equipment. Tractor-pulled wheeled scrapers, dragline excavators, and track-type tractors equipped with a bulldozer blade are generally used. Bulldozers can only push the excavated material, not carry it; if the length of push is long, using these machines is expensive.

In high-rainfall areas and in areas where the water table is within the limits of excavation, a dragline excavator is commonly used because it is the only kind of equipment that operates satisfactorily in any appreciable depth of water. For ponds fed by ground water aquifers, a dragline is normally used to excavate the basic pond.

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Water Needs

This pond supplies water to a stockwater trough used by cattle in nearby grazing area
Fig. 02. This pond supplies water to a stockwater trough used by cattle in nearby grazing area

The demand for water has increased tremendously in recent years, and ponds are one of the most reliable and economical sources of water. Ponds are now serving a variety of purposes, including water for livestock and for irrigation, fish production, field and orchard spraying, fire protection, energy conservation, wildlife habitat, recreation, erosion control, and landscape improvement.

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Preliminary [Pond Site] Investigations

Potential main pond site in the Eugenio-Magano Farm 03
Potential main pond site in the Eugenio-Magano Farm 03, Caddu, Ilagan, Isabela.

General considerations. Selecting a suitable site for your pond is important, and preliminary studies are needed before final design and construction. Analysis and selection of pond sites should be based on landscape structure and associated ecological functions and values. Relationship of the site to other ecological features within the landscape is critical to achieving planned objectives. If possible, consider more than one location and study each one to select the most ecologically appropriate, esthetic, and practical site. Weighing both onsite and offsite effects of constructing a pond is essential in site selection. Refer to figure 1 and the glossary to become familiar with the components of a pond and associated dam.

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Operating and maintaining the pond


A pond, no matter how well planned and built, must be adequately maintained if its intended purposes are to be realized throughout its expected life. Lack of opera- tion and maintenance has caused severe damage to many dams and spillways. Some structures have failed completely. For these reasons you must be fully aware of the need for adequate operation and maintenance, and you should carry out all measures required.

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Pond safety

Ponds, like any body of water, attract people so that there is always a chance of injury or drowning. You may be planning to build a pond for watering livestock, irrigation, or any of the other purposes discussed in this handbook. However, your family and friends may picnic beside the pond or use it for fishing, swimming, boating, or ice skating, and you can never tell what a small child passing by may do.

Your pond can become a source of pleasure as well as profit, but only if it is safe. You can take some of the following steps to prevent injuries or drownings and to protect yourself financially.

Read more: Pond safety