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An Integrated Rice Farming System by Nemesio C. Cristobal (farmer)

Integrated Farm System by Nemesio C. Cristobal
Integrated Farm System by Nemesio C. Cristobal. Mang Nemesio was orphaned at a very young age, and had to work to help support his family. His hard work was noticed by a landowner, who leased his unused land to Mang Nemesiol. Through harwork, learning from his experience and the initiative to take "training courses", Mang Nemsio was able to develop his own version an integrated farming system. According to the video, the integrated farm nets the family about a million pesos each year, a huge sum for the average farmer.

The video, about Mang Nemesio, exemplifies how "low tech farm practices" were used to develop an integrated farming systems consisting of rice, livestocks, poultry, tilapia, fruit trees and vegetables. Mang Nemesio developed his own low tech large-scale "aquaponics" system diverting the water from the tilapia ponds to irrigate the rice field. [He could have also used the same "organic nitrogen rich" fishpond water for his fruit trees and vegetable crops.] He made organic fertilizers using the farm by-products (rice straw, manure) and perhaps with the aid of earthworms (?). He also prepares carbonized rice hull (CRH), a by-product from rice milling, as supplemental source of minerals, and use mulching for the vegetable crops. Mang Nemesio was prudent enough to realize that apart from the practical knowledge from his farming experience, he sought more help through training to learn many other techniques he then applied to his own version of integrated farm systems.

Read more: An Integrated Rice Farming System by Nemesio C. Cristobal (farmer)

Alternate wetting and drying (AWD)--using less water to grow rice

Controlled Irrigation
Controlled Irrigation

"Across the globe, water is fast becoming a precious commodity as more and more people use it for the household, industry, and agriculture.  

Since almost half of the worlds population depends on rice as its staple food, rice uses the highest amount of water in agriculture. By 2025, 15 to 20 million hectares of irrigated rice fields may suffer from water scarcity.  

To face this challenge, scientists at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI; http://irri.org) have developed a technique called alternate wetting and drying or AWD, which uses less water to grow rice. This video provides a glimpse on how to apply AWD in irrigated rice fields." - International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) 

Read more: Alternate wetting and drying (AWD)--using less water to grow rice

Grain moisture content and grain quality

In post-harvest handling, grain moisture content is generally stated on a wet weight basis (MCwb). This means that it is expressed as percentage of water contained in the wet grain. Improper drying and storage practices lead to low grain or seed quality.

Some problems related to incomplete or untimely drying or storage of paddy with high moisture content are: 

  1. Heat build up in the grain 
  2. Mold development
  3. Insect infestation
  4. Discoloration/Yellowing
  5. Loss of germination and vigor
  6. Loss of freshness/odor development
  7. Reduced head rice yield
Read more: Grain moisture content and grain quality

Impact of Storage of Freshly Harvested Paddy Rice on Milled White Rice Flavor

 Abstract

Between harvest and the start of drying, paddy rice may be held for more than 24 hr at moisture contents ranging from 16% to >26%. Microbes found on the freshly harvested rice grow under these conditions and produce a wide variety of volatile compounds that impact the flavor/aroma of the white rice obtained after drying and milling of the paddy rice. The contents of 10 volatile microbial metabolites were compared in white rice obtained from paddy rice harvested at differing moisture contents and immediately dried (0 hr) or held for 48 hr before drying. No increases in volatile microbial metabolite levels were observed in white rice obtained from paddy rice that was stored at 17–21% moisture contents for 48 hr. In white rice from paddy rice stored at ≥24% moisture content, 3-methyl-butanol, 2-methyl-butanol, acetic acid, 2,3-butandiol, and ethyl hexadecanoate increased markedly with time. Also in these samples, as determined by a descriptive panel, sour/silage and alfalfa/grassy/green bean flavors significantly increased (P < 0.1) in intensity. Sour/silage, the predominant off-flavor note in the stored samples, correlated highly (r = 0.98) with 2,3-butandiol. Ethanol concentration measurements on the paddy rice correlated highly with sour/silage (r = 0.99) and 2,3-butandiol (r = 0.97), and correlated well with several other volatile microbial metabolites. Carbon dioxide measurements taken on the paddy rice did not correlate as highly (r = 0.78) with sour/silage. Measurements of ethanol produced in paddy rice may serve as an indicator of off-flavor/aroma development in the resultant white rice.  

Read more: Impact of Storage of Freshly Harvested Paddy Rice on Milled White Rice Flavor